Due in part to its size, Kirov is designated by some as a battle cruiser. In addition to their standard AA they were given ten additional fully automatic 37 mm (1.5 in) 70-K AA guns. They were a very peculiar design, being essentially light cruisers with a 7-in artillery. She was under repair at Poti until 31 July 1943, using the stern of the incomplete Chapayev-class cruiser Frunze, the rudder of the incomplete cruiser Zheleznyakov, the steering gear from Kaganovich and the steering sensor from the submarine L-25. These models were slow, vulnerable to bad weather when landing, to such a point they were disembarked in the summer of 1941. [11], The armor of the Project 26 ships was vulnerable even to destroyer-class weapons at ranges under 10 km (6.2 mi) and the last four ships were given additional armor. Finnish Navy picture. The Gorkiy was completed in Ordonikidze Yard in November 1940 and the Molotov in June 1941. And they were of Italian design. The loss of three destroyers to German aircraft attempting to interdict the German evacuation of the Taman Bridgehead on 6 October 1943 caused Stalin to forbid the deployment of large naval units without his express permission and this meant the end of Voroshilov's active participation in the war. Later, the second serie Gorky and Molotov had Soviet-built ZK-1 catapults; but no plane was ever fitted to them, the all four ships stayed without plan provision. The 50 mm belt measured 121 m (397 feet) – about 64.5% length- by 3.4 m in height (11 ft 2 in) less than half of which was below the waterline. Project 26bis2 used eight single 52-caliber 85 mm (3.3 in) 90-K guns, supplied with 300 rounds per gun. The Kirov class were the largest surface warships built since the end of World War II. Her trials were a disappointment as her Italian-built turbines initially had minor defects, and she was 1 knot (1.9 km/h; 1.2 mph) slower than guaranteed. Nominal capacity was 106-tonnes per hour of superheated steam, working at 25 kg/cm2 (2,452 kPa; 356 psi) of pressure. Admiral Lazarev, the world’s largest nuclear cruiser, will be sent for disposal this August, according to the Russian Interfax news agency. On trials they proved to be the fastest ships of the class with a speed of 36.72 knots (68.01 km/h; 42.26 mph). He remained in service until 1976-77 as a training ship. [16] During the Winter War, Kirov, escorted by the destroyers Smetlivyi and Stremitel'nyi, attempted to bombard Finnish coast defense guns at Russarö, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of Hanko. It has been judged too thin to withstand a torpedo's detonation, but possibly the far-side bulkhead might survive intact, which would cause a list from asymmetrical flooding. Both cruisers were active in the last days of June covering Soviet defensive mining operations, but Gorky and her escorts ran into the German-laid "Apolda" minefield on the 23rd and Maxim Gorky and the destroyer Gnevny both lost their bows. [25] Voroshilov's 14-ton propeller and 2.5-ton stop anchor are on display at the Museum of Heroic Defense and Liberation of Sevastopol on Sapun Mountain in Sevastopol. The name Kirov is a Western designation for the Project 1144 Orlan (Sea Eagle). The three electrically powered 236-247 tonnes MK-3-180 triple turrets housed three 57-calibre 180 mm B-1-P guns. [21] She had to be towed to Poti for repairs, which lasted until February 1942. These were the first large ships built by the Soviets from the keel up after the Russian Civil War, and they were derived from the Italian cruiser Raimondo Montecuccoli, being designed with assistance from the Italian Ansaldocompany. Refitted from November 1949 to April 1953, her machinery was completely overhauled, with her radars, fire control systems and anti-aircraft guns being replaced by the latest Soviet systems. Gorky and Molotov mounted Soviet-built ZK-1 catapults of roughly comparable performance, but were destined never to use them for lack of suitable aircraft. A development of Rheinmetall German 3.7 cm (1.5 in) sold before Hitler arrive to power in 1933, they were an adapted sub-version of the antitank 53-K. The Project 26bis ships (Gorkiy class) carried the same turrets with with improved 21-K mounts. Lend-Lease radars equipped most of the other ships. But … The OSA-MA autonomous shipborne air defence missile system. Overall Project 26 design was faithful to the Italian ‘tin-clad’ armor of the time and the ship was vulnerable down to under 10 km (6.2 mi) to destroyer shells. Only the first five were launched in 1940-41. Bristling with sensors and weaponry, and seemingly alien … Voroshilov's Soviet-built turbines were more powerful than anticipated, and she almost achieved her design speed. Radars made these all obsolete. The Soviet Navy did not existed in 1922 and never was admitted to the Washington naval conference. Also Lend-Lease quadruple Vickers .50 machine gun on MK III mounts were fitted on Baltic and Black Sea ships, either one or two. Traverse bulkheads were 50 mm (2.0 in) as well as the decks. Light AA guns initially consisted of six semi-automatic 45 mm 21-K AA guns with 600 rounds per gun and four DK 12.7-millimetre (0.50 in) machine guns, with 12,500 rounds per gun, but were significantly increased in service. Gorkiy hit a mine in June 1941 and lost her bow. It has been speculated that "This seam in the protection, representing a small target area, may simply have served to save weight and simplify construction. And they were of Italian design. By 1942 she still had not been completed and the Germans attacked and sunk her in Leningrad. A total of 96 KB or 164 Model 1912 mines could be carried by the first pair of ships. The entire cradle elevated to 48° and depressed to -5°. The belt, traverse bulkheads, barbettes and turret face thicknesses were all increased to 70 mm (2.8 in) and the box protecting the steering gear was increased to 30 mm (1.2 in). Xavier Vavasseur 17 Dec 2020 Story by TASS Russian news agency The Soviets borrowed the machinery of the later Duca d’Aosta-class cruisers on paper (nominal 10,000 hp) but struggled to fit these inside the smaller hull. As a result, with a lack of competent engineers and experience, while Soviet industry was not capable of designing such a large and complex vessel, foreign assistance was sought out. Kirov-class cruiser, a Soviet class of conventional cruisers . Their Light AA artillery consisted of six semi-automatic 45 mm/46 (1.7 in) 21-K AA guns. [19] For most of the rest of the war both cruisers were blockaded in Leningrad and Kronstadt by Axis minefields and could only provide gunfire support for the defenders during the Siege of Leningrad and support for the Soviet Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive in mid—1944. The Soviet TB-7 geared turbines proved to be more powerful and more economical than the originals. Range was 38,000 m (42,000 yd). Over the course of World War II most, if not all, of the 45 mm guns were replaced by 37 mm guns and one or two Lend-Lease quadruple Vickers .50 machine gun MK III mounts were fitted to the ships in the Baltic and Black Seas, although each ship varied in its anti-aircraft suite. AA armament Provision was 600 rounds per gun of all types, including the BR-240 AP, and light HE F-73. The deck edge was also tapered down to 25 mm. The machinery for Kirov was directly shipped from Italy (Initially planned for the Eugenio di Savoia). [6], Shortly after Kirov was launched in 1936, the two Project 26bis ships were laid down. She reprised her role as a transport during the first week of January. Elevation reached 85° and depression -10°. The damage reduced her speed to 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) and she had to be steered by her engines. She was sold under provisions of the Germano-Soviet pact in 1939 and renamed Petropavlovsk. She was renamed Petropavlovsk on 3 August 1957 after Lazar Kaganovich was purged from the government after an unsuccessful coup against Nikita Khrushchev that same year. [11], While Voroshilov was laid down first, Kirov was the prototype for the class and was completed first. https://ww2db.com/ship_spec.php?ship_id=515 http://navsource.narod.ru/photos/02/066/index.html http://wio.ru/fleet/ww2cruiser.htm https://www.world-war.co.uk/russia/kirov.php33d view (WT)laststandonzombieisland.com more about the Kalinin, Your email address will not be published. [26], Molotov suffered a fire in the #2 turret handling room on 5 October 1946 which required the magazine to be flooded; 22 sailors were killed and 20 wounded. The voroshilov participated in various coastal bombing missions after June 1941, was badly damaged in October by bombers, was sent to Poti for repairs, and left in February 1942 to support the winter counter-offensive. Gnevny sank, while Gorky made it to port before being transferred, with assistance, to Tallinn and later to Kronstadt. Another problem was that the Italian design had to be adapted to use the Soviet preference for a mix of longitudinal framing for the hull framing amidships and transverse framing for the ends, while also reinforcing the hull structure to withstand the more-severe weather conditions that the Soviets commonly encountered. Both were in service during the invasion. Since speed was everything at that time, the Italians focused on it, and promised a 7200 tons cruiser armed at first with three twin turrets with the Russian intermediary caliber of 180 mm (7.1 in). She remained there for the rest of the Winter War and afterwards was under repair at Kronstadt from October 1940 to 21 May 1941. Impressed by this firepower increase, the Soviet committee approved the blueprints on November 1934 as Project 26. Indeed, the Kirov burned .8 kg (1.8 lb) of fuel oil per hp, versus Kalinin’s 623 kg (1.37 lb) and the end result was 113,500 shaft horsepower (84,600 kW) on trials versus 122,500 shp (91,300 kW). She was under repair until 20 December 1946. The Project 26bis ships carried nine 21-K mounts and the Project 26bis were built with an additional ten fully automatic 37-millimetre (1.5 in) 70-K AA guns with a thousand rounds per gun. On 29 November 1942, she was damaged by nearby mine explosions while bombarding Feodonisi, but managed to return to Poti under her own power. Their armament was much the same as the earlier ships, although nine 45 mm (1.8 in) 61-K anti-aircraft guns were mounted rather than the six on the first pair and they were fitted to carry 150 Model 1908/39 mines in place of the Model 1912 mines. Kaganovich was renamed Lazar Kaganovich on 3 August 1945 to distinguish her from Lazar's disgraced brother Mikhail Kaganovich. The Italians pointed out that the guarantee only applied if she displaced 7200 tonnes or less, and she was overweight by over 500 tonnes (490 long tons; 550 short tons). The power-plant was also revised and produced 129,500 hp but with an unchanged top speed of 35 knots. They entrusted the Italians, who at the time enjoyed a certain technical and design prestige compounded by many export successes. A ZK-1a catapult was installed aboard Molotov in 1943, and she conducted successful experiments with a catapult-launched Supermarine Spitfire fighter. This was probably a weight-saving measure applied during construction. Air defense is provided by twelve octuple S-300F launchers with 96 missiles and a pair of Osa-MA batteries with 20 missiles each. The Pyotr Velikiy (Peter the Great) Kirov Class project 1144.2 heavy missile cruiser. 9 x 180 mm (3×3), 6 x 100 mm, 6 x 45 mm AA, 4 x 12,7 mm, 6 x 533 mm TTs (2×3), 3 airplanes. 2 Parsons turbines, 6 Yarrow-Normand boilers, 113,000 hp. With this design revision, the planned speed fell to 36 knots on the Kirov and 34 on Voroshilov. Two ships each were deployed in the Black and Baltic Seas during World War II, while the last pair was still under construction in the Russian Far East and saw no combat during the war. 1937 for Kirov and 34 on Voroshilov K-12 catapults were purchased in 1937 for Kirov and on... 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